ROC Yearbook

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Wuling Farm’s cherry blossoms in their full splendor. Every spring, cherry blossoms come alive with their marvelous shades of pink and white across numerous venues in Taiwan. (Courtesy of Taiwan Panorama)



Taiwan Proper

Off the eastern and southeastern coasts of the Asian continent lies a chain of island groups stretching from Russia’s Sakhalin Island in the north to Indonesia’s myriad islands in the south. Situated near the chain’s midpoint, between Japan and the Philippines, is the island of Taiwan. (In this chapter, the name Taiwan refers to Taiwan proper.)


Measuring about 400 kilometers from north to south and around 145 kilometers from east to west at its widest, Taiwan comprises over 99 percent of the territory now under the Republic of China’s (ROC) jurisdiction. It is blessed with a wide range of landforms and contrasting climatic zones.


Taiwan Proper: Surface Area and Geographic Coordinates


Mountains and Hills­

Mountains occupy about half of Taiwan. The longitudinal East Rift Valley 花東縱谷 separates the high-reaching Central Mountains 中央山脈 from the lower East Coast Mountains 東部海岸山脈 along the central eastern coast. In addition, at the northernmost extremity of Taiwan lie the Datun Mountains 大屯山脈. They form the northern wall of the Taipei Basin 臺北盆地, where Taipei City 臺北市, the nation’s capital, is located.


Mostly forested, the four major mountain ranges in the island’s central region include more than 200 peaks rising higher than 3,000 meters above sea level, making for some of Taiwan’s most dramatic scenery. The eastern flanks of these four ranges are relatively precipitous, with the easternmost among them—the Central Mountains—bordered by relatively small coastal lowlands. Inland from the Central Mountains are the Yushan Mountains (Jade Mountains) 玉山山脈, home to the highest peak in Taiwan and Northeast Asia—Yushan Mountain (Jade Mountain) 玉山—at 3,952 meters. Meanwhile, the westernmost mountain ranges—the Xueshan Mountains 雪山山脈 and Alishan Mountains 阿里山山脈—gradually level out westwards into extensive hilly regions, tablelands and plains.


Taiwan and Nearby  Islands


Seismic Activity and Geothermal Features

Seismic activity is common in Taiwan as the consequence of ongoing convergence of the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. The collision of these plates that eons ago gave birth to the island of Taiwan also produced a variety of distinctive features. In addition to the Datun volcano group, outcrops of basaltic and other types of solidified lava are found across the island, where lava welled up through fissures in the bedrock. And aside from conventional hot springs, geothermal phenomena associated with the island’s geological history include small mud volcanoes and muddy hot springs.


Tablelands, Coastal Plains and Basins

At the foot of western Taiwan’s belt of hills are tablelands ranging in elevation between 100 and 500 meters above sea level. The most extensive of them is the Taoyuan Terrace 桃園臺地 in northwestern Taiwan. The others, from north to south, are the Houli 后里 and Dadu 大肚 terraces in Taichung City 臺中市, the Bagua Terrace 八卦臺地 in Changhua County 彰化縣, and the Hengchun Terrace 恆春臺地 in Pingtung County 屏東縣.


At a lower altitude lie alluvial plains formed by silt carried down by rivers after long-term sedimentation. Level and arable plains make up 23 percent of Taiwan. The Jianan Plain 嘉南平原 in southwestern Taiwan, extending from Yunlin County 雲林縣 in the north to Kaohsiung City 高雄市 in the south, accounts for 14 percent of Taiwan’s total land area. Next largest are the Pingtung Plain 屏東平原 in the south and the Yilan Plain 宜蘭平原 in the northeast. Also containing level, arable land are the Taipei Basin and the Taichung Basin 臺中盆地.



Rivers, Lakes and Reservoirs

Fed mostly by runoff from the island’s centrally located mountains and hills, virtually all of Taiwan’s 150 or so rivers and streams flow either eastward or westward. The westward-flowing Zhuoshui River 濁水溪 in central Taiwan is the longest, at 187 kilometers, while the Gaoping River 高屏溪 in the south has the largest watershed, with an area of 3,257 square kilometers.


Taiwan has relatively few natural lakes. The largest and deepest is Sun Moon Lake 日月潭 in Nantou County 南投縣, with a surface area of about 8 square kilometers and a depth of around 30 meters. The island also has a few artificial lakes that are larger in area than Sun Moon Lake. The two largest are Zengwen Reservoir 曾文水庫 and Feitsui Reservoir 翡翠水庫, with surface areas of 17.80 and 10.20 square kilometers, respectively, at full storage level.


Taiwan's Major Rivers



Taiwan has a relatively long summer and a short, mild winter. The island, which is crossed by the Tropic of Cancer at the latitude of Chiayi City 嘉義市, boasts a variety of contrasting climate zones. On the whole, its northern and central regions are subtropical; its south is tropical; and its mountainous regions are temperate.


Taiwan’s mean temperature in a typical year ranges from about 18 degrees Celsius in winter to 28 degrees Celsius in summer. Low temperatures can drop below 10 degrees Celsius in winter, and high temperatures can surpass 35 degrees Celsius in summer.


The island’s average annual rainfall is approximately 2,200 millimeters in the plains and more than 3,000 millimeters in the mountains. Northern Taiwan generally receives 60 percent of its total annual precipitation between May and September. Southern Taiwan receives over 90 percent of its precipitation around the same period, and its driest time stretches from November through February.


The winter and summer East Asian monsoon systems influence Taiwan’s seasons. The winter monsoon prevails from October through March, with predominantly northeasterly winds (blowing toward the southwest) bringing moderate and stable rainfall to the east and north of the island. The central and southern parts of western Taiwan, on the other hand, experience mostly sunny weather with limited rainfall in autumn and winter.


The onset of the East Asian summer monsoon is concurrent with Taiwan’s rainy season, popularly known as the plum rain 梅雨 season, in May and June. During this time, southwestern Taiwan is especially vulnerable to heavy rainfall, and afternoon thunderstorms are common.


Typhoons are most frequent in July, August and September. Taiwan experiences three to four typhoons per year on average. Some of them have caused severe damage; extreme cases of torrential and sustained rainfall may cause flooding, mudflows and landslides, and significant loss of life and property. Nevertheless, the precipitation that accompanies typhoons is vital to the island’s water resources.



Comprising 64 volcanic-origin islands and constituting Penghu County 澎湖縣, the 127-square-kilometer Penghu Islands 澎湖群島 lie in the Taiwan Strait about 45 kilometers from the southwest coast of Taiwan and 120 kilometers from the Chinese mainland.


The Penghu Islands have relatively flat terrain. Winding coastlines of the larger islands form numerous bays and inlets, where shallow waters in some areas are favorable to the growth of coral. Natural attractions found on several of its islands include basalt columns, cliffs and naked cores of eroded volcanoes.



The 12 members of the Kinmen Islands 金門群島, which together constitute Kinmen County 金門, are situated off the coast of mainland China’s Fujian Province 福建省, less than 2 kilometers from Fujian’s capital city of Xiamen 廈門 and nearly 280 kilometers from Taiwan. The island group has a total of 152 square kilometers in area.


The islands’ bedrock is primarily granitic. While the smaller ones are low-lying and flat, the largest one, Kinmen Island, is hilly, with peaks reaching as high as 253 meters.



The Matsu Islands 馬祖列嶼, under the jurisdiction of Lienchiang County 連江縣, comprise 36 islands with rugged, hilly terrain, totaling 28.80 square kilometers in area (based on low-tide line). They are located adjacent to the mouth of mainland China’s Minjiang River 閩江, less than 1 kilometer from the mainland coast and more than 210 kilometers from Keelung 基隆 in northern Taiwan.


With an area of 10.43 square kilometers, Nangan Island 南竿島 is the largest and most populous member of the group. The bedrock of the Matsu Islands is mainly comprised of granite, which serves as an important building material for the islands’ traditional houses and buildings.


Other Islands

Located at about 30 kilometers and 60 kilometers off the southeast coast of Taiwan are Ludao Island (Green Island) 綠島 and Lanyu Island (Orchid Island) 蘭嶼, covering 15 and 47 square kilometers, respectively. Both are hilly, volcanic in origin and surrounded by coral reefs supporting abundant sea life.


About 12 kilometers off the southwest coast of Taiwan, Xiaoliuqiu 小琉球 covers an area of 6.80 square kilometers. Other islands in the South China Sea claimed by the ROC include the Dongsha (Pratas) Islands 東沙群島, the Nansha (Spratly) Islands 南沙群島, the Xisha (Paracel) Islands 西沙群島 and the Zhongsha Islands (Macclesfield Bank) 中沙群島.


Further, lying about 170 kilometers northeast of Taiwan is the Diaoyutai Islands 釣魚臺列嶼, a small island group that includes Diaoyutai Island 釣魚臺, Huangwei Isle 黃尾嶼 and Chiwei Isle 赤尾嶼.


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Han Peoples

Seeking refuge from upheavals during the transition between the Ming 明 and Qing 清 dynasties, the ancestors of Taiwan’s Han 漢 peoples began migrating from China’s southeastern provinces to the island in sizeable numbers in the 17th century. The majority of these early immigrants were Holo 河洛人, mostly from areas in southern Fujian Province, as well as Hakka 客家人 mainly from eastern Guangdong Province 廣東省.


Holo immigrants settled in Taiwan’s coastal regions and inland plains, while Hakka immigrants inhabited hilly areas. Clashes between these groups over resources led to the relocation of some communities, and, as time passed, varying degrees of intermarriage and assimilation took place.



The Holo people are the largest ethnic group in Taiwan, accounting for approximately 70 percent of the population. During the Qing dynasty (1644-1912), a large number of Holo men from mainland China married women of indigenous Austronesian groups. Hence, many in Taiwan who consider themselves Han have indigenous ancestry as well. With Austronesian and Japanese influences—the latter as the result of the half-century of Japanese rule from 1895 to 1945—Holo culture in Taiwan is quite different from that in mainland China.



The Hakka, who make up about one-fifth of the Han population in Taiwan, have a long history of periodic migration—hence the name Hakka, which literally means “guest families.” They are said to be diligent and frugal. Known also for their communal spirit, large Hakka communities can be found today in the Taoyuan, Hsinchu 新竹, Miaoli 苗栗, Taichung, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Hualien 花蓮 and Taitung 臺東 areas.


Immigrants Arriving around 1949

The Chinese civil war as well as the ROC government’s relocation to Taiwan in 1949 occasioned an influx of 1.2 million people from the Chinese mainland to the island from 1945 to 1953. The majority were soldiers, civil servants and teachers. Unlike earlier immigrants, these people came from all over the mainland and included not only Han Chinese but also ethnic groups from Mongolia, Tibet and southwestern China.


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Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Malayo-Polynesian peoples have lived on the island for millennia, with archeological evidence confirming their presence dating back 12,000 to 15,000 years. Their languages belong to the Austronesian linguistic family, whose speakers are known for their migratory history and inhabit an area of the globe that stretches from Madagascar Island in the west to Easter Island in the east and from Taiwan in the north to New Zealand in the south.


Though distinct from each other in many ways, the various indigenous groups in Taiwan share certain customs with one another and with Austronesian peoples in other parts of the world. Over the centuries, while the more remote indigenous groups have tended to maintain distinctive communities, others have blended in with Han society.


Currently, the 16 officially recognized indigenous groups are the Amis 阿美, Atayal 泰雅, Bunun 布農, Hla’alua 拉阿魯哇, Kanakanavu 卡那卡那富, Kavalan 噶瑪蘭, Paiwan 排灣, Puyuma 卑南, Rukai 魯凱, Saisiyat 賽夏, Sakizaya 撒奇萊雅, Seediq (or Sediq) 賽德克, Thao 邵, Truku 太魯閣, Tsou 鄒, and Yami 雅美 (or Dawu 達悟). As of December 2015, the collective population of these groups stood at approximately 546,700 (including about 14,500 people who did not identify themselves as belonging to any one group), or 2.33 percent of the total population of Taiwan. The three largest groups—the Amis, the Paiwan and the Atayal—accounted for 70.98 percent of the indigenous population.



Population Trends

The official population statistics of Taiwan indicated that there were 3.12 million people living on the island in 1905. Forty years later the population had nearly doubled to 6.09 million, and as of 2015 it had multiplied to 23.49 million.


Policies and family planning following the post-World War II baby boom slowed this expansion, however, and the population growth rate, which was 3.49 percent in 1960, diminished to 1.28 percent in 1985 and just 0.25 percent in 2015. During the 1960s, the total fertility rate (the average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years) was approximately five; by the 1980s, it was two, and in 2010 it cratered at less than one, among the lowest figures in the world, as the number of newborns hit a record low of 166,886.


The number of newborns has recovered thereafter. In 2015, the number of the babies born rose to 213,598, and the sex ratio, which has been uneven for years, fell to 108.27 boys to 100 girls. Over the long run, the crude birth rate is still on a downward trajectory, dropping from 2.30 percent in 1981 to 0.91 percent in 2015.


The decline of the birth rate has been accompanied by the ascent of both the average age of marriage and the divorce rate. The average age of marriage increased from 28.1 for men and 24.5 for women in 1981 to 34.2 and 31.4 for men and women respectively in 2015, while the divorce rate rose from 0.83 divorces per 1,000 people in 1981 to 2.28 per 1,000 people in 2015.


Taiwan is now an aging society. The proportion of citizens aged 65 and older has steadily increased, from 2.45 percent of the population in 1955 to 12.51 percent in 2015, and the 15-64 age group, which comprised 54.14 percent of the total population in 1955, grew to 73.92 percent during the same period. Conversely, the share of inhabitants under 15 years of age has been decreasing.


The “demographic dividend,” as defined by the National Development Council (NDC) 國家發展委員會, is the potential for accelerated growth when at least 66.7 percent of an economy's population is of working age (ages 15-64). According to NDC projections, Taiwan will lose its demographic dividend in 2028, as its working-age population is expected to decline annually after peaking in 2015.


As the number of retirees grows, the burden of covering their pensions will gradually build on contemporary workers. To address the aging of the population and its effects on national development, the government aims to establish a comprehensive social security net, further raise the quality of life through education, promote environmental protection and sustainable development, and formulate an appropriate immigration policy.


Population by Age



Between 1992 and 2015, the number of foreign nationals living in Taiwan jumped from about 44,400 to 637,800 mainly due to the arrival of blue-collar migrant workers beginning in the early 1990s as well as an increase in marriages between ROC citizens and foreign nationals. In December 2015, blue-collar migrant workers accounted for 83.70 percent of the total foreign population in Taiwan.


Marriages of ROC citizens to foreigners peaked in 2003 at 54,634 couples, accounting for 31.86 percent of all marriages. In 2015, this figure dropped to 19,988, or one in every 7.72 marriages, with 46.64 percent of non-ROC spouses from mainland China and 31.28 percent from Southeast Asian countries.


In 2014, about 10,950 ROC citizens emigrated to other countries. Statistics show that the United States was the top destination, followed by Australia and New Zealand. )


New Immigrants Valued and Assisted



Related Websites

Ministry of the Interior:

Water Resources Agency:

Central Weather Bureau:

Penghu County Government:

Kinmen County Government:

Lienchiang County Government:

Hakka Affairs Council:

Council of Indigenous Peoples:

National Development Council:

National Immigration Agency: