Taiwan has been responding to the impacts of climate change for over a decade prior to the implementation of the Climate Change Response Act on February 15, 2023. In 2013, the government initiated the multi-phase National Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan, promoting concerted adaptation strategies across ministries and agencies, as well as cooperation across different fields, in contrast to previous initiatives that primarily focused on reducing greenhouse gases. The action plan has now entered its third phase (2023-2026) and administers 126 projects across seven main areas, comprehensively strengthening the nation's resilience against climate change and advancing the sustainable development of Taiwan's society, economy and environment.
Seven main areas
■ Infrastructure: Integrate adaptive flood control and flood management measures. Enhance the ability of transportation systems to carry out decision-making, withstand and recover from disruptions, and detect and respond to challenges. Bolster the ability of public works to resist climate shocks. These measures will boost the resilience of vital infrastructure.
■ Water resources: Guarantee a stable water supply by developing a diverse range of new water resources, eliminating public water pipe leakages, conserving water and adopting smart technologies for water resource management. Augment emergency water supply capacity by creating artificial water sources, supplementing water resource networks with detention basins, and developing subsurface water and other natural water sources. Optimize usage of existing water resources and reduce its impact on ecosystems and the environment. These measures will ensure an effective equilibrium of supply and demand for water resources.
■ Land use: Promote rational land use, such as by advancing nature-based solutions in holistic planning of rural areas, and encouraging water retention landscape design in urban renewal projects. Reduce the impacts of climate change on people's living environments, such as by establishing water reclamation centers and facilities, encouraging greener parks and popularizing green building certification. Ensure an environmentally secure homeland, such as by conducting climate change risk assessments and farmland vulnerability assessments, and improving conservation of national parks and wetland ecosystems.
■ Oceans and coasts: Adopt nature-based solutions to strengthen the adaptability of coastal environments and maintain a dynamic ecological equilibrium. Conduct comprehensive, long-term and systematic oceanographic surveys, thereby supporting ocean monitoring, early warning systems and biological conservation. These measures will help guard against coastal disasters and assure the sustainability of marine resources.
■ Energy supply and industries: Raise awareness among industries regarding climate change adaptation. Help companies identify and evaluate the extent of risks to their infrastructure from climate hazards such as flooding and high winds. Provide companies with guidance on adaptation strategy planning. These measures will reinforce the adaptability of Taiwan's industries and energy supply.
■ Agricultural production and biodiversity: Improve agricultural risk management and lower agricultural losses by administering climate change impact assessments. Bolster ecological resilience by advancing nature-based solutions. Expand development opportunities for agricultural production by exploring the emerging agricultural industry services, mechanisms and strategic planning that have arisen from the demands of adapting to climate change and lowering carbon emissions.
■ Health: Strengthen emergency medical services, disease control systems and occupational health and safety protections. Improve long-term environmental monitoring, risk identification and pollution control measures. Heighten public preparedness by establishing warning systems for extreme temperatures and other awareness mechanisms. These measures will fortify public health and disease control systems and improve management of health risks.